Hiking in Athens Greece

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So you thought that visiting Athens, Greece is all about historical monuments, museums and a dazzling nightlife? Well, think again. Athens has some natural surroundings that would astound you all within reach from your accommodation. In fact, everywhere you look there is a hill or mountain you can climb. Next time you’re in town, pack some hiking boots as well, they might come in handy. After all, this country is famous for its natural beauty.

If you open any map of the city, you will notice the mountainous regions surrounding Athens. Attika, where Athens is located, is made up of mountains, valleys and ridges. The city lies nestled in the central plain; also known as the Attica Basin. Four mountains look over Athens. To the west, lies Mount Aegaleon and to the east mount Hymettus. The other two mountains overshadow the northern suburbs of the city. Mount Penteli to the northeast and Mount Parnitha to the north. Of the four, Mount Parnitha is the tallest standing at over 1400 metres, which has also been declared a national park.

Mount Parnithais a breathtaking mountain range comprised of thick pine wood forest and wildlife. It is only 35 km out of the city and can be reached by car or public transport. It is one of the popular winter destinations for Athenians as well as visitors. In the summer, you can explore the mountain on bike and in the winter in boots or even skis. Its plentiful paths will lead you to its many caves, brooks and breathtaking views of the city below. Be prepared to meet a huge variety of flowers, bird species and foxes. If you are lucky, you might even meet some of the deer that call this place home.

Mount Pendeli, on the other hand, may be lacking in forest after some devastating fires stripped most of the mountain bare. However, it is a mountain of great historical importance; it is where the ancient Athenians mined the marble for the Parthenon. It is also home to the famous Davelis cave; a place few people dare visit. Shrouded in mystery and superstition, it is known for strange sightings, sounds and a creature that haunts deep within. Taking a trek up this mountain and be rewarded by the remains of its ancient past and panoramic view of the city, the mountain range and the sea.

Mind you, you do not have to go that far for a good hike. Right in the centre of the city lies Mount Lykabettus. This is basically a hill made of limestone that protrudes out of the heart of the concrete jungle. It has a rich green landscape at the base with a white top; a perfect contrast to the backdrop of the sparkling blue sky. The climb is quite challenging and few are willing to take the risk, but once on top, the view will astound you. Lay back and enjoy a coffee at the cafe as you watch the sunset behind the Acropolis.

Before you decide to make your way back to your room, take in the view a little more. Watch the Parthenon and the rest of the city light up. Look around you and notice the shadows of the mountains as they retire their glory for the night. Finally, walk through the many local neighborhoods and breathe in the faint floral scents of their blooming gardens.

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Acquire The Appropriate Help To Make Sure You’ll Be Able To Discover The Proper Workers

Business employers need to make certain they are able to discover the right help whenever they need to have it and, frequently, this is probably going to be hard to achieve. Whether it’s since they don’t really recognize where to search to be able to discover the appropriate staff members or even they are not certain how to carry out an interview, it is crucial they will acquire the aid they require. An employer who wants to ensure they are able to discover the correct employees and also ensure they’ll know precisely how to interview possible employees will almost certainly wish to work with one of the executive recruiters tampa to be able to acquire the assistance they’ll need.

One of the benefits of working together with recruiting firms tampa is the capacity to uncover proficient men and women quickly. The recruiting firm is aware of where to look in order to discover possible candidates for the work as well as might help the employer ensure they will find the proper one as fast as possible. This is not easy for the employer to achieve by themselves as they may well not realize where to search or perhaps exactly what to seek out. The recruiter has experience in this task as well as can help the employer discover exactly who they are looking for to allow them to fill a position as fast as possible in order to enable their organization to continue to thrive as well as grow.

Together with helping them find prospective workers, the headhunters tampa could also enable them to discover just how to interview potential staff members. That is a vital tool that will help them to ensure the individuals they are employing will probably be good for the work. This is simply not something that comes naturally to numerous hiring managers and that’s alright anytime they will have the ability to understand precisely what they should as well as shouldn’t achieve when they are choosing a possible staff member and also deciding if they’ll wish to retain an individual. Having this specific help could make certain they’re going to put together an excellent group to help the company develop.

If you are needing assistance locating or interviewing probable employees, working together with one of the executive search firms tampa may genuinely help. Visit their particular website right now in order to find out much more about how they can assist you and also exactly how this aid may truly make a difference for your business. You’re going to be glad you called them whenever you will start seeing the main difference it makes for your organization.

Leadership is a Proficiency Which Might Be Acquired with Proper Training

More often than not, people who are promoted into supervision belong to one of two categorizations: they are simply either great at exactly what the actual organization makes or perhaps endorses: photography, product sales, publishing, or another worry, or perhaps else these people were moved up primarily because they were so difficult to work with that not one person desired to operate around these individuals, but furthermore just didn’t wish to proceed through the actual paperwork essential for stopping their employment. They will get passed along the line only to at last move them away from the existing crew’s office. Regrettably, in both these examples, many people don’t have just what it takes to make a excellent boss.

Good administrators possess very good leading capabilities. Men and women willingly cooperate with and naturally esteem an excellent leader. From time to time, a great head is born, but quite often, they are created, possibly in their indigenous home atmosphere or possibly by way of a system connected with leadership training denver. With executive coaching denver, any clever, well-balanced and even experienced individual can easily achieve the abilities needed to turn into a good leader and to exercise the sort of leadership that preferably aids someone if they are granted the particular authority of any posture inside operations. On a a lot more private stage, this may lead to increased individual obligations plus better career possibilities.

Athens Syntagma Square – Athens City Center

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The heart of present day Athens is fashionable Plateia Syntagmatos which lies below the imposing mass of the Old Royal Palace. Plateia Syntagmatos, which translated means Constitution Square, commemorates the constitution granted by Othon I in a proclamation from the balcony of the Palace on the night of 3rd September 1843.

The OLD ROYAL PALACE, which since 1935 has housed the Parliament, was designed as the residence of King Othon, at his own and his father’s expense, by the Bavarian architect Friedrich Garther and built between 1834 and 1842.

At the foot of the west facade of the Old Palace is a large square bounded on three sides by walls on which, in evocation of the ancient custom of hanging the victor’s shield in the temple, are set bronze shields flanked by the names of the many victories won by Hellenic arms since National Independence. Built into the center of the retaining wall is the TOMB OF THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER, a relief impressive in its simplicity, which depicts a dying hoplite. This work is by the sculptors Constantinos Demetriades (1881-1943) and Phokion Rok (1886-1942), and was unveiled on 25th March (National Independence Day) 1932.

South of Plateia Syntagmatos lies Leophoros Amalias, which is so called after King Othon’s consort, who, with the horticulturist Friedrich Schmiedt, created the delectable retreat adjoining the Old Royal Palace that we know today as the NATIONAL GARDEN. The National Garden is open daily from sunrise to sunset and the shade of its multitudinous trees provides a cool and peaceful oasis in the heart of the city.

On the east side of the Garden are the busts of Capodistrias and Jean-Gabriel Eynard, a great Swiss philhellene who donated large sums of money to the cause of Greek Independence. Both these busts are the work of the famous Pelopennesian loannis Kossos. Other busts in the National Garden are those of three leading Greek poets of the 19th century: Dionysius Solomos of Zante, who is considered the national poet; Aristotle Valaoritis, also a native of the Ionian Islands, and Jean Moreas, which was the nom-de-plume of loannis Papadiamantopoulos, an Athenian who lived the greater part of his life in Paris.

Contiguous to the National Garden is a large public park called ZAPPEION after the brothers Evangelos and Constantinos Zappas of Epirus, who donated it with its splendid exhibition hall to the Nation. On either side of the entrance to the exhibition hall stand statues of the donors, that of Evangelos by loannis Kossos; that of Constantinos by Georgios Vroutos. Among the many pieces of statuary by famous sculptors is the bust of loannis Varvakis by the master Leonidas Drossis. Varvakis is best known as the founder of the renowned boys’ school, the Lykeion Varvakeion, for the endowment of which he bequeathed his huge fortune. Other busts include those of Constantinos Paparrighopoulos, the greatest historian of Modern Greece, of Stephan Dragoumis, the most prominent political personality during the Macedonian struggle (1903-1909), and of George Souris, the leading satirical poet of his times.

A short distance from Plateia Syntagmatos, on the right of Odhos Panepistimiou, we come to a Renaissance edifice of Italian inspiration. This is the NUMISMATIC MUSEUM, which contains a rich collection of Greek, Roman and Byzantine coins, cameos and seal-stones. Built by the noted architect Erst Ziller in 1878, it was the private residence of the illustrious archaeologist Henry Schliemann.

Still keeping on the right-hand side we come to a five-storeyed building situated at the corner of this street and Odhos Omirou. Here are the premises of the ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, built entirely in marble. The classical motif of the magnificent bronze door with its richly painted and gilded surround and the ceiling coffered in a delicate blue and gold deserve the greatest admiration. Besides creating the first National Archaeological Museum the Society, which was founded in 1837, has excavated sites all over the country.

Immediately after the Archaeological Society’s premises stands the ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL. As the Latin inscription shows, the cathedral was begun in 1853, completed in 1887, and dedicated to St. Dionysius Areopagite. It is a three-naved basilica designed by Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), Bavarian Court architect and master-plan ner of modern Athens, and built under the direction of Lysander Kaftanzoglou (1811-1885), the outstanding Greek architect of the period.

Adjoining this edifice is the OPHTHALMIC HOSPITAL, a Byzantine-style construction designed by Theophil Hansen (1813-1891, the younger of two Danish brothers, both distinguished architects), in 1847, and completed by Lysander Kaftanzoglou four years later.

Just beyond the Ophthalmic Hospital is an ensemble of neo-Classical buildings: on the right the Academy, in the middle the University, and on the left the National Library. All three were gifts to the Nation from wealthy patriots; they are the most sumptuous monuments of Modern Greece.

The HELLENIC ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, a meticulously accurate reproduction of an edifice of the Classical period erected in the graceful Ionic order by Theophil Hansen at the expense of Baron Georgios Sinas, was begun in 1859 and completed in 1875.

The nine sculptured pediments and all the statues before the Academy are the work of the Athenian master Leonidas Drossis. The relief in the central pediment, which portrays The Birth of Athena, and the two gigantic statues of Apollo (right) and Athena (left) standing on tall columns, one on either side of the principal facade, are particularly impressive. The seated figures flanking the short flight of steps leading to the portico represent the philosophers Socrates (right) and Plato (left).

The portico consists of a double row of columns. The coffered ceiling is painted in bright blue and gold and the door opening into the vestibule has a surround of classical inspiration executed in brilliant color and gilding. A statue of the donor Baron Sinas stands on the right of the vestibule, while the interior of the Academy Hall is decorated with eight superb panels by the Oldenburg painter Christian Griepenkerl (1839-1916), depicting scenes from the Myth of Prometheus.

Visitors to the University will be surprised to see a statue of William Ewart Gladstone, standing on the right of the lawn surrounding the forecourt. The dedication on the plinth of this statue immortalizes the prominent part played by the great British statesman in the deliverance of Epirus and Thessaly from Turkish oppression, and their return to the Motherland in 1881.

The statues at the top of the steps leading to the entrance commemorate the great philologist Korais (1748-1833), ardent patriot and “father” of the Modern Greek literary language (right), and Capodistrias (1776-1831), first Head of State (1827-1831) and one of the major architects of modern Greece.

The UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS was founded in 1836, and was initially established in a large house which Schaubert and Cleanthes had built in Plaka (the old quarter of Athens) when they first came to Athens in 1831. This building, at the corner of Odhos Prytaneiou and Odhos Tholou, is still standing and is converted into a museum devoted to the earlier history of the University. The present University buildings were designed by Christian Hansen and the foundation stone laid by King Othon in 1839. The central building was ready for use in 1842, but owing to lack of funds, the buildings as a whole were not completed until 1850.

A colonnade with a handsome portico in Pentelic marble fronted by two Ionic columns with gilded capitals, and a coffered ceiling in blue and gold in harmony with the classical motif of a painted and gilded door surround, gives access to the interior of the main building.

On the upper part of the wall a fresco by the celebrated Austrian painter Karl Rahl (1812-1865) shows the resurgence of arts and sciences under King Othon. Statues of two national heroes, Patriarch Grigorios and the martyred poet Rhigas Pheraios, stand respectively at the right and left angles of the facade.

The NATIONAL LIBRARY, which is built of Pentelic marble on a foundation of poros, consists of a central building in the form of a Doric temple, with two wings. It was planned by Theophil Hansen in 1887 and the work executed under the supervision of Ernst Ziller, at the expense of the Valianos brothers of Cephalonia in 1901. A statue of one of these munificent benefactors, Panayis, stands outside the central building, and those of his two brothers Andreas and Maris inside the entrance hall. All three statues are the work of Georgios Bonanos.

The eminent philologist Andreas Moustoxidis on the island of Aegina formed the nucleus of the Library in 1827. The books were brought to Athens in 1833 and stored in the beautiful church of St. Eleutherius (the “Little Cathedral”). In 1842 they were removed to the first floor of the central building of the University – which had just been completed – where they remained until the National Library was inaugurated in 1903.

In recent years many fine nineteenth century buildings have been demolished and unimaginative concrete structures built on the sites, so that with the exception of the Ionian Bank of Greece on one corner of Odhos Pezmazoglou and the former buildings of the Arsakeion College for Girls (founded in 1836) on the other corner over the Doric portico, built at the expense of Apostolos Arsakis of Epirus in 1848, nothing remains of the splendid buildings that once lined both sides of this street of central Athens.

Continuing along Odhos Panepistimiou for a short distance, we turn right into Odhos Patission. A few hundred meters further down, on our right, stands a construction in the finest Pentelic marble, in which two educational institutions of University status are established: The POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL (Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Naval, Chemical and Mining Engineering, Architecture, and Topography) and the SUPERIOR SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS (Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, Engraving, etc.). Two wings in the Doric order serve as propylaea to the central building of two storeys, the lower erected in the Doric order, the upper in Ionic. This edifice is the work of Lysander Kaftanzoglou, who built it between 1862 and 1880, and owes its name -METSOVION POLYTECHNEION- to the fact that the principal donors Nicholaos Stournaras, Michalis Tositsas and his widow Helen, were natives of Metsovo in Epirus.

A Clever Operations Team Cares about and Invests in Its Personnel

It’s usually an easy task to tell when a business really cares about its staff. It can be seen in the way the operations staff handles the employees. Though the company might limp along for a lot of years, if the management interacts with employees as if these folks were slaves, animosity accumulates and lots of employees possess the propensity to get bitter in terms of their behaviour. If the administration as well as the workforce are usually locked in power struggles, regardless how refined it really is on top, it’s really a sure thing that that business won’t know its potential if that scenario is still allowed to continue. Administration would certainly be smart to recollect the actual old proverb it is easier to hook flies by using honey than it is utilizing vinegar.

There are a lot of approaches which a supervision staff that wishes to indicate excellent will toward its staff might do so. Probably the most crucial is to treat each and all of them with respect. Basically learning people’s names, creating genuine eye contact, always smiling, and stopping occasionally to pass the time of day is certainly associated with great benefit. Excellent working places, good pay with regard to good work, chances with regard to improvement and also the expression regarding genuine appreciation for all the work that staff members perform just about all generate great results. Staff really should have a good break room for these people to benefit from.

Going together next to chances to advance within the corporation stands out as the offering of academic opportunities, for example injection molding seminars. When workers are provided a chance to improve themselves and to take seminars for injection molding, or perhaps injection molding classes, it often seems to not just shows that this supervision actually values these individuals, but additionally, it reveals that supervision would like to invest in regards to them, as men and women. Not only can the accreditations obtained from profiting from chances similar to scientific molding seminars try to make these people better personnel, a win from near the business’s standpoint, and yet additionally, it positions such individuals to make raises, possibly be granted promotions and to go on to completely new positions in the business. It generates their latest jobs safer, and makes it much simpler for such people to acquire brand-new employment when they must relocate to a whole new location.

Ensure Your Home Genuinely Looks Just How You Desire

Renovations on a residence are performed for a number of reasons. They may be accomplished in order to improve the value of the house before a sale, to make the house a lot more convenient and comfy for the property owner, or maybe because the homeowner would like something new. While the number one type of redevelopment is a Kitchen Renovation, a lot of property owners will be also considering a full Bathroom Renovtion to get the home to seem exactly how they’ll wish it to. Quite often, the homeowner will almost certainly want to get a hold of a specialist for assistance with this sort of renovation.

Even though modest adjustments won’t call for a specialist and there are tasks a homeowner can handle by themselves, a bathroom involves both plumbing as well as electricity. If anything is being moved or perhaps changed, it’s going to be a smart idea to work with a specialist in order to make certain things are all done properly. Difficulties setting up plumbing or perhaps electricity might be extremely harmful, specifically in a room where care has to be taken since both are situated in the room close to one another. An oversight with the plumbing, for instance, may lead to water getting to the electric, which could quickly result in a fire with absolutely no earlier forewarning that there is a worry.

Along with basic safety factors, if redesigning a bathroom the homeowner might desire to work with a specialist to make certain everything is performed correctly and punctually. The qualified professional they work together with will ensure the ideas for the remodeled bathroom fulfill the homeowner’s anticipations then they’re going to begin focusing on everything, taking care in order to make certain it really is completed in the right order as well as done right so just about everything will appear fantastic and work flawlessly by the conclusion of the restoration. Because they’re professionals, they can also get everything completed faster than the homeowner could have.

If perhaps you might be thinking about a bathroom renovation, be sure you furthermore think about working together with a specialist to ensure there are no issues of safety as well as that the freshly redesigned bathroom will look exactly how you want it to. Make sure you take a look at http://www.bathroomblue.com.au/ right now to be able to discover much more about one professional that can help you to get the bathroom you’ve always needed.

Discover How To Help Other Individuals Accomplish Their Own Career Ambitions

Some people have a natural skill supporting other individuals. They could be a great person to be a career coach and in order to help other people reach their own ambitions. To do this, they’ll prefer to ensure they’ll get the appropriate instruction they’ll require in order to be fully certified. This way, they will have the right paperwork to show they are well-informed and in a position to assist those that have to have help with their particular career.

In order to become a career coach, a person may desire to use the education that’s accessible to enable them to get the appropriate accreditations that are accepted worldwide as well as begin aiding others as quickly as possible. They are going to desire to check into coaching like the coach training by ECI that enables them to receive tailored education from specialists who are going to train them in just how to help any individual ascertain the appropriate job for them as well as just how to assist them to accomplish other ambitions also. Together with the best training, they are going to be in the position to start a great career as a coach speedily and get started aiding other individuals right away.

If perhaps you wish to become a coach, be sure you’re going to take full advantage of the training that is obtainable today. Take a look at the training programs by Executive Coach International to be able to discover one which is perfect for you and to be able to start focusing on your following objective right now.

Excellent Hospitals in Athens, Greece

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Greece has hospitals that belong to both the private and the public sector.  Athens  also has a balance mix of both private and public hospitals that are well equipped to cater to any kind of medical issues. The public hospitals in Greece are managed and controlled by The National Health Service.

The Diagnostic and Therapeutic  Centre  of  Athens , Hygeia has been functional since 1970.It is a private hospital founded by eminent Greek physicians to provide world class and modern care to its patients. The Hygeia Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center provides health and medical services throughout Greece and in some other countries too. There are 22 surgery clinics, 11 pathology clinics, 6 diagnostics centers, 8 rehabilitation centers and10 hospitals abroad.The hospital as an Organ Transplant Unit and an ICU that is equipped to deal with all kind of medical problems. The hospital also has ambulance services and their ICU is equipped with the requisite support and diagnostic facilities to ensure proper treatment to its patients. The hospital has the facility for Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) to help fight blood diseases. It was the first hospital in Greece to introduce the concept of one day surgery.

Kyanous Stavros is a privately owned hospital and diagnostic centre. The centrally located hospital was set up in the year 1963 and is one of the finest hospitals in  Athens . The hospital has the latest technology and is in the process of continually modernizing its operations and departments. It is a multidisciplinary hospital that has 24 hours emergency room that caters to the requirements of foreigners and tourists. There are ambulances services available that are equipped to provide safe and quick transportation throughout Greece if required. The hospital has a range of accommodation facilities to suit the requirements and pockets of a variety of patients. The hospital accepts the majority of insurance companies whether private or public. The hospital provides treatment to all the citizens who might approach it regardless of the fact whether they have insurance or not.

One of the prominent hospitals in  Athens  is the General Hospital of Attica KAT. The hospital with its modern medical and technological equipment and a well trained staff is a reliable health care centre. The hospital address is 2 Nikis street in Kifissia and it is easily accessible through the Electric Railway or the Underground Metro. The hospital has a pathology division, an orthopedics department that caters to all kinds of orthopedic problems, a general surgery division and also specialized surgeries department.

IASO General is a hospital with state of art facilities and services. The hospital has an ICU that is world class and is known to be amongst the best in the country. It has a Coronary Care Unit and was the first in the country to have a dedicated unit for diagnosis and treatment of heart ailments. IASO General is also equipped with an up-to-date accident and emergency department. There are 10 highly sophisticated surgical units and an angina pectoris unit in the hospital. It also has internal medicine, surgery and diagnostic divisions. The surgeries department has facilities for thoracic, plastic, cardiac, orthopedic and general surgeries. The address for the hospital is 264 Mesogeion Ave. 155 62 Holargos and the contact no is 210 650 2000.

Helena Venizelou founded Marika Eliadi Maternity Hospital in 1926. At that time there was an acute shortage for good hospitals and trained staff for maternal care in the city. The hospital was set up with an aim to provide advanced natal care not only to entire  Athens  but to the entire country. Now the hospital provides specialized maternity care and also other services that cover secondary and tertian health requirements. The hospital also has an internal medicine department, endocrinology department, cardiology department and a hepato-gastroenterology unit.

If you need medical help, the next time you are in  Athens . Take a look at these facilities.

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Philadelphia- the New Athens

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A city not only known as the city of American freedom or the birthplace of America but also known for the revolutionary role it has played since centuries. Welcome to Philadelphia, a life-size city in Pennsylvania and the birthplace of America. Philadelphia is often referred as the New Athens, the name first suggested for the work done by the famous native of the city Benjamin Franklin. Rightly so as Benjamin Franklin was responsible for the country’s first insurance company, the city’s first public library and the first fire department; Franklin also played a great role in establishing the city’s Postal system as well as inventing new conveniences such as bifocal lenses and the Franklin stove.

Philadelphia or “Philly” best known for its role in the American Revolutionary War saw the convening of the Continental Congress as well as the writing of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States of America. Shortly after the nation’s inception took place in Philadelphia, it was named the nation’s capital between 1790 and 1800 before it was relocated to its present Washington D.C. Philly is now a big metropolitan which accommodates around 6.2 million inhabitants from almost all nationalities.

One of the unique factors about Philadelphia is that it is the most walkable city in the US and this factor is well used for the better part of it. Signs like “Walk! Philadelphia” well compliments the cities uniqueness and at the same time guide visitors toward shopping, dining, gallery perusing, cultural enjoyment, local must-sees and public transportation should it need to be taken. The city has two very walkable shopping districts as well as the walkable Benjamin Franklin Parkway, which is home to many museums, including the Franklin Institute and the Philadelphia Museum of Art that was made famous in the Rocky series of movies.

Its geographic location makes Philadelphia accessible by all modes of transport. The Philadelphia International airport is a busy one and you can find regular flights to almost all the locations. You can even enjoy the road trip to Philadelphia. Moreover as a visitor you can find hotels for every budget and if by any chance you are on a tight budget you can definitely find a suitable place in the Philadelphia districts. There is a place for every budget in Philadelphia. Some of the regular facilities offered by the hotels in Philadelphia include air conditioned rooms, car rentals, airport pick and drop facilities, swimming pools, health clubs, spas, restaurants etc. The city provides a unique nightlife to all and that definitely means that you can take a ballet in the nation’s oldest grand opera house as well as knock back a Pabst and a shot of swill for three bucks. In all Philadelphia makes a great city for all and if you haven’t taken a note of that you better mark it in your next holiday destination.

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The Political Polarity That Was Athens and Sparta

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Around 800 B.C.E. the Greek populous started to coalesce into communities which were called poleis. The polis was a city state with its own governing body and typically a military. Each polis varied considerably from other poleis. A polis could have anywhere from one thousand to tens of thousands of citizens between its main urban center, and its surrounding towns and agricultural developments. The poleis of Sparta and Athens were two of the largest and most powerful city states in ancient Greece. These two poleis were also among the most competitive, mostly with each other, and influential in the ancient Greek world.

Athens was a largely agriculturally based polis in Attica, off of the Aegean Sea. It was dependent on slaves to do the manual labor of the polis, from working the fields, to working in the homes of Athenian citizens. Athens was a democratic city state whose society revolved around politics, as it was the primary day to day activity of the male citizens. Athens hosted a powerful navy which was influential on more than one occasion for fighting off Persian invasions.

Sparta is in most ways the opposite of Athens. Sparta is also heavily dependent on slaves, or ‘helots’ as they are called. Helots primarily work the land which was conquered by Sparta for agricultural production. Sparta is a highly militaristic polis, having its entire society based around warfare. For more of the antiquity of Greece than any other polis, Sparta maintained the definitive hoplite infantry force in Greece.

The attitude of both of these great poleis was vastly different. Athens was the sophisticated, innovative, and cultured democratic polis. Sparta was completely militaristic. It was traditional, simple, and straight forward. At birth newborns in Sparta were judged as being big and strong enough to become a Spartiate warrior, or a child was judged incapable, and it was left in the mountains to die. At age seven children were taken into state-run educational systems where men were trained for war. Athens young men were largely dedicated to battle, not to the degree of Sparta, but there was a large factor making up for this fact.

Pericles, an Athenian Strategos, had urged the married women of Athens to bear more children. Athens population was much greater than Spartas to begin with, and had a much larger birth rate. Spartiates were to get married between age twenty and thirty, but until age thirty, they were to remain living in the barracks. “Men living in the barracks were only permitted to meet their wives surreptitiously-a fact that may account in part for the notably low birthrate among Spartiate couples.” To compete with Athens, Sparta’s’ militarism was necessary to keep up, but they did even manage to surpass the Athenians land forces.

Both poleis had forms of government to match their respective differing attitudes which further high lights the polarism of these two city states. Spartan government is made up of two kings, of equal power, each with their own royal family and line of succession. Under them is a council of twenty-eight elders, who put issues forward for a strictly ‘yes’, or ‘no’ vote, with no discussion, by an assembly made of all Spartiate warriors over thirty. There was also five ephors, who were elected officials with the task of supervising the educational system, and to protect the traditions of Sparta. The ephors had the power to remove a king from command if necessary. If anything, the Spartan government, and society overall was primarily static, and compared to such a polis as Athens who was a quickly changing and open cosmopolitan city state, Sparta could be called stubborn.

Athens’s form of government changed from time to time, but primarily Athens was ruled by nine Archons who exercised executive power in Athens. They had one year terms, and once their term was over they were lifetime members of the Areopagus Council. The council had a large influence on the judicial matters of Athens. This council was the party responsible for electing the Archons. The political atmosphere in Athens did change considerably, because of its open and democratic nature, and more than one politician caused political reform. Politics and discussion went hand in hand. Athens also hosted some of the most well known philosophers in history, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, which were all very political thinkers.

Athens and Sparta were two fundamentally different city states functioning In the same ‘country’, which at times could have been said to not have been big enough for the two of them. With each polis striving to expand outside of Greece, as well as each trying to control the various smaller and less powerful poleis of Greece they were fierce competitors. This elicited more than one armed conflict, including the twenty-seven year long Peloponnesian war. Though on a few occasions Athens, Sparta, and various other unfriendly poleis banded together to fight invading Persians, the two poleis were both too fundamentally different, competitive, and patriotic to allow any strong unity between them beyond peace and trade treaties. They both existed as communities adapted to survive independently from other city states, and when their interests merged either it was to protect Greece itself from foreign powers, or it meant conflict as they fought over resources and other goals.

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